Statistics Definition, Scope with Real life Examples


Statistics is a field of mathematics which concern with collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data using scientific way or statistical methods. Statistics provides mathematical analysis and build models to interprete the data patterns.

Sir R.A. Fisher defined statistics as, 'The science of statistics is essentially a branch of applied mathematics and may be regarded as mathematics applied to observational data."

There are various statistical methods of performing data analysis or statistical analysis. such as,

Field of statistics

There are various field where statistics applied. some of them are given below:

1. Predictions:

Statistics help us make predictions about something that is going to happen in the future. Based on what we face in our daily lives, we make predictions. To make predictions, first we collect sample from the existing population from a certain study area. We collect sample using different sampling procedure such as probanility sampling (Simple Random SamplingStratified SamplingSystematic SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingCluster Sampling) and non-probability sampling (Convenience samplingAccidental sampling, Purposive sampling ,Snowball sampling/Network Sampling). Then we build a hypothesis according our needs. After that we perform data analysis and find the result. Then test the hypothesis and make a prediction from our data set.

How accurate this prediction will depend on many factors. When we make a prediction, we take into account the external or internal factors that may affect our future. When they apply statistical techniques to estimate an event, the same statisticians use it.

Doctors, engineers, artists, and practitioners all use statistics to make predictions about future events. For example, doctors use statistics to understand the future of the disease. They can predict the magnitude of the flue in each winter season through the use of data.

Engineers use statistics to estimate the success of their ongoing project, and they also use the data to evaluate how long it will take to complete a project.

2. Mathematics: 
The formulas used in math are reliable, but to get more precision and exactness, statistics methods are important. In fact, it is called the branch of applied math. There are common techniques that both the fields have adopted from each other such as statistical methods, namely probability, dispersion, etc., used in math and mathematical concepts like integration and algebra are used in former. 

3. Business: 
Business students must be aware of the importance of statistics in the field. There are times when a businessman has to make quick decisions, and this can be done by using its concepts which make the decision-making easy. He strategizes the marketing, finance, production, resource through it. What are the tastes and preferences of consumers? What should be the quality? What should be the target market? All these questions are answered using statistical tools. 

4. Economics: 
There are so many concepts of economics that are completely dependent on statistics. All the data collected to find out the national income, employment, inflation, etc., are interpreted through it. In fact, theory of demand and supply, relationship between exports and imports are studied through this subject. The perfect example of this is census; the bureau uses its formulas for calculating a country’s population. 

5. Country’s Administration: 
Many national policies are decided using statistical methods, and administrative decisions are taken based on its data. Statistics provides most accurate data which helps government to make budgets and estimate expenditures and revenues. It is also used to revise the pay scale of employees in case cost of living is rising. 

6. Astronomy: 
When scientists measured the distance between sun and earth, or moon and earth, they did not use any measurement scale or ruler for that. It was these statistical methods that helped them to find out the best answers and estimates that are possible. It is difficult to measure the mass, size, distance, density of objects in the universe without any error, but statistics formulas do this with the best probability. 

7. Banking: 
When someone deposits his money in banks, the idea is that he will not withdraw the amount in the near future. So, banks lend this money to other customers to earn profit in the form of interest. They use statistical approach for this service. They compare the number of people making deposits against the number of people requesting loans and at the same time ascertaining the estimated day for the claim. 

8. Accounting and Auditing: 
Although accounting needs exactness in calculating the profit and loss of the business, certain decisions can be taken according to approximation which is done through statistics. For example, sampling may be used to find out the current trends in the market as it does not require any precision. 

9. Natural and Social Science: 
Almost all fields of science such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc., use statistical methods for experimenting and analyzing their results. In biology, it is used in biostatistics, biometrics, which includes investigating about medicines, pharmacy, agriculture, fishery, etc. Same way, probability theory is used in physics while estimating large population, results of thermodynamics use statistical tools. Sociology is also based on the subject to analyze and interpret data and test hypothesis.

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