#### Stratified sampling: Definition, Allocation rules with advantages and disadvantages

Stratum is a group of elements where all the units of elements “within the strata are homogeneous but between strata they are heterogeneous”. Homogeneous means alike or contains same characteristics and heterogeneous means different from each other or contains different characteristics. [Note: ‘Stratum’ is singular form and ‘strata’ is plural form].

Stratified sampling is a probability sampling.

Stratified sampling |

**Allocation rules of stratified sampling**

- Equal allocation
- Proportional allocation
- Neymanallocation
- Optimum allocation

**Equal Allocation**

**Proportional allocation**

**Neyman or optimal allocation**

**Advantages of stratified sampling**

- Stratification tends to decrease the variances of the sample estimates. This results is smaller bound on the error of estimation. This is particularly true if measurement within strata are homogenous.
- By stratification, the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced by stratification of the population elements into convenient groupings.
- When separate estimates for population parameters for each sub population within an overall population is required , stratification is rewarding.
- Stratification makes it possible to use different sampling designs in different strata.
- Stratification is particularly more effective when there are extremely values in the population, which can be segregated into separate strata. Thereby reducing the variability within strata.
- It is most effective in handling heterogeneous population.
- In stratified sampling, confidence intervals may be constructed individually for the parameter of interest in each stratum.

### **Disadvantages of stratified sampling**

- It requires more administrative works as compared with Simple Random Sampling.
- It is sometimes hard to classify each kind of population into clearly distinguished classes.
- It can be tedious and time consuming job to those who are not keen towards handling such data.