What is MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance)? MANOVA is an extension to univariate ANOVA that includes at least two dependent variables to analyze differences between multiple groups in the independent variable. In contrast to ANOVA, where we compare individual group means, MANOVA compares the vectors…

## Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using R

A general linear model (GLM) with at least one continuous and one categorical independent variable is known as ANCOVA (treatments). When the effect of treatments is essential and there is an additional continuous variable in the study, ANCOVA is effective.…

## One Sample T-test in R

A one-sample t-test is used to see if the mean of a population from which a sample was taken differs statistically from a hypothesised value. The null hypothesis in a t-test is that the population mean is equal to the…

## Pearson correlation in R

The Pearson correlation coefficient, sometimes known as Pearson’s r, is a statistic that determines how closely two variables are related. Its value ranges from -1 to +1, with 0 denoting no linear correlation, -1 denoting a perfect negative linear correlation,…

## Chi-Square test using R

A chi-square test is used to analyze nominal (sometimes known as categorical) data. It is pronounced kai and is frequently written as a χ2 test. It’s used to compare the observed frequencies in each sample’s response categories. The null hypothesis…

## Random Forest in R

Random Forest is a strong ensemble learning method that may be used to solve a wide range of prediction problems, including classification and regression. Because the method is based on an ensemble of decision trees, it offers all of the…

## Paired sample t-test using R

The paired sample t-test, sometimes called the dependent sample t-test, is a statistical procedure used to determine whether the mean difference between two sets of observations is zero. In a paired sample t-test, each subject or entity is measured twice, resulting…

## One-Way ANOVA using R

The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups. This guide will provide a brief introduction to the one-way ANOVA, including the…